ASTM C1499

Standard Test Method for Monotonic Equibiaxial Flexural Strength of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature

Equibiaxial strength is determined by concentric ring configurations under monotonic uniaxial loading.

$75 per specimen


Significance and Use

This test method may be used for material development, material comparison, quality assurance, characterization and design code or model verification.

Engineering applications of ceramics frequently involve biaxial tensile stresses. Generally, the resistance to equibiaxial flexure is the measure of the least flexural strength of a monolithic advanced ceramic. The equibiaxial flexural strength distributions of ceramics are probabilistic and can be described by a weakest link failure theory, (1, 2) . Therefore, a sufficient number of test specimens at each testing condition is required for statistical estimation or' the equibiaxial strength.

Equibiaxial strength tests provide information on the strength and deformation of materials under multiple tensile stresses. Multiaxial stress states are required to effectively evaluate failure theories applicable to component design, and to efficiently sample surfaces that may exhibit anisotropic flaw distributions. Equibiaxial tests also minimize the effects of test specimen edge preparation as compared to uniaxial tests because the generated stresses are lowest at the test specimen edges.

The test results of equibiaxial test specimens fabricated to standardized dimensions from a particular material and/or selected portions of a component may not totally represent the strength properties in the entire, full-size component or its in-service behavior in different environments.

For quality control purposes, results derived from standardized equibiaxial test specimens may be considered indicative of the response of the bulk material from which they were taken for any given primary processing conditions and post-processing heat treatments or exposures.


1. Scope

1.1 This test method covers the determination of the equibiaxial strength of advanced ceramics at ambient temperature via concentric ring configurations under monotonic uniaxial loading. In addition, test specimen fabrication methods, testing modes, testing rates, allowable deflection, and data collection and reporting procedures are addressed. Two types of test specimens are considered: machined test specimens and as-fired test specimens exhibiting a limited degree of warpage. Strength as used in this test method refers to the maximum strength obtained under monotonic application of load. Monotonic loading refers to a test conducted at a constant rate in a continuous fashion, with no reversals from test initiation to final fracture.

1.2 This test method is intended primarily for use with advanced ceramics that macroscopically exhibit isotropic, homogeneous, continuous behavior. While this test method is intended for use on monolithic advanced ceramics, certain whisker- or particle-reinforced composite ceramics as well as certain discontinuous fiber-reinforced composite ceramics may also meet these macroscopic behavior assumptions. Generally, continuous fiber ceramic composites do not macroscopically exhibit isotropic, homogeneous, continuous behavior, and the application of this test method to these materials is not recommended.

1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


Copyright Notice

Extracted, with permission, from ASTM C1499 Standard Test Method for Monotonic Equibiaxial Flexural Strength of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature, copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428. A copy of the standard may be purchased from ASTM International, phone 610-832-9555, e-mail:, website:


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